A goal is what the characters chase, but what chases the characters? The consequence doubles the dramatic tension in a story by providing a negative result if the goal is not achieved.
Consequences may be emotional or logistic, but the more intense they are, the greater the tension. Often it provides greater depth if there are emotional consequences when there is an external goal, and external consequences if there is an emotional goal.
Your story might be about avoiding the consequences or it might begin with the consequences already in place, and the goal is intended to end them.
If the consequences are intense enough, it can help provide motivation for characters who have no specific personal goals.